Hostess: Hi, will you be having lunch?
Mary: Yes, but I’m not very hungry. It’s too hot outside.
Hostess: I know what you mean. It’s a scorcher today.
May: I’m not used to this kind of weather. I’m glad that everything is air Conditioned here.
Waiter: Hi, my name is Carl and I’ll be serving you today. Can I get you something to drink?
Mary: Just water, please, with ice.
Waiter: Of course. I’ll be back in a moment.
May: Thank you
Waiter: Would you like to hear about our house specials?
Mary: I think I’ll just have a salad, bread, and a glass of white wine. Waiter: O.K. What kind of wine? Our house wine is quite good. Mary: Fine, I’ll have a glass of that.
Waiter: Would you like some dessert? We have a delicious chocolate cheese cake.
Mary: I don’t think so. I’m on a diet. Just bring the bill, please.
MAKING AN APPOINTMENT
Secretary: Good morning, Haskell, Cleaver, and
Young Alex: I’d like to speak to Mr. Young please.
Secretary: Who’s calling please?
Alex: I’m related to Stephanie Garner. Mr. Young asked me to get in touch when I arrived in the U.S.
Secretary: please hold.
Mr. Young: Hello Mr. Alex. How are you? I’m looking forward to meeting you. Can you come by tomorrow at 10 a.m.?
Alex: Yes, I think so. Where are you located?
Mr. Young: Our offices are just behind the State Capitol building. You can walk from your hotel.
Alex: What time should I leave the hotel?
Mr. Young? Oh, maybe around 9.30. It should only take about twenty minutes on foot.
Alex: Thanks, I’ll see you tomorrow morning
Reading is a complex process which deals with recognizing the letter, comprehending and evaluating it. A good reader is one who follows the sub skills of reading and comprehends the passage appropriately. Thus the term comprehension in its extension come from the root word in Latin ‘COM’ (completely)‘PREHENDERE’ (Hold, grasp). The chief purpose of comprehension is therefore to get a complete understanding of what is read, so as to get the message what the writer wishes to convey. The ability in comprehension may be tested in different formats. A passage followed by questions on comprehension and a passage followed by objective type of questions are present in the common format.
TYPES OF READING SKILLS:
There are four types of Reading as follows:
1. Skimming: The purpose of skimming is to get main idea or general idea of material by following the methodology of sweeping the eyes across the line and picking up key words. Thus generally in this type, the speed of reading goes from 500 – 800 wpm (word per minute). Example when we skim the books in library when they are relevant to our required topic.
2. Scanning: It is meant to locate specific answers or information as quick as possible by glancing at information on the page as a whole. Thus the speed of reading in scanning includes 1000+ wpm. Example: dictionary.
3. Intensive Reading: It is to learn, understand and retain information by slow, serious reading especially. The speed of reading here is 150 – 300 wpm. Example when we read the whole text book for exams.
4. Extensive Reading: This is reading for the purpose of joy and pleasure following free style of reading. It includes 200 – 250 wpm like in reading of novels.
TECHNIQUES OF COMPREHENSION
Reading Comprehension requires motivation, mental frameworks for holding ideas, concentration and good study techniques. Here are some ideas or techniques for effective comprehension:
• Widen your basics: Widen your basics by reading newspapers, magazines and books. Become interested in world events
• Learn the structures: good writers construct paragraphs that have a beginning, middle and end. Often, the first sentence will give an overview that helps provide a structure for adding details.
Look for central point, phrases in paragraphs that change the topic.
• Recognize the reasoning type: Recognize whether the author is using cause and effect reasoning, hypothesis, model building, induction or deduction, systems of thinking.
• Expect and Guess: really clever student will try to expect the author and guess the future ideas and questions. If your expectations and guesses are right, this increases your understanding. If you are wrong, you make adjustments quicker.
• Method of organizations: See whether the material is organized, chronologically, serially, logically, functionally, spatially, hierarchically.
• Cultivate interest: Go through sample comprehension passages, ask questions, and discuss ideas with friends and classmates. The more you cultivate interest, the greater your comprehension.
• Observe for supporting ideas: While practicing study pictures, graphs and headlines. Read the first and last paragraph in a passage, or the first sentence in each section.
• Underline, summarize and review: Just reading a passage once is not enough.
To develop a deeper understanding, you have to underline, summarize and review important ideas.
• Build vocabulary: for many, this is a lifetime project. The best way to improve your vocabulary is to use a dictionary regularly. You might carry around a pocket dictionary and use it to look up new words. Or you can keep a list of words to look up at the end of the day. Concentrate on roots, prefixes and suffixes.
• Vocalize words: Yes although it is faster to form words in your mind rather than on your lips or throat, Eye motion is important. Frequent backtracking slows you down considerably.
SAMPLE OF SHORT REPORT IN LETTER FORM:
Aug 10, 2010
The Commissioner of School Education
Government of Andhra Pradesh
Title: Introducing computer education in school Curriculum
Terms of reference: as per your letter dated May 1 , 2010
Findings: On 1st May this year, you asked us to study the feasibility and desirability of introducing computer Education in all government, aided and unaided schools in Andhra Pradesh keeping in view the changing trends of time. Accordingly, we have made an indepth study of the issue.
The report is submitted as follows:
We met different levels of people to elicit their views on feasibility or desirability of Introducing computer Education in Schools. The schedule of our meetings was as follows:
May 3, 2010 : Met senior officials of Department of school Education at Hyderabad
May 4-6, 2010` : Spoke to District educational Officers in person and on telephone.
May 7-20, 2010 : Met representatives of private school managements Headmasters and staff of certain selected schools and elicited their views
May 21-31, 2010 : Held informal discussions with the parents and the students of certain selected schools.
June 2-15, 2010 : Met computer professionals of reputed organizations like Satyam computers and Wipro and held discussions with them.
Present situations : At present the school curriculum does not provide for computer education, the maximum focus is on conventional type of education. In fact the school authorities do not bother to update the curriculum and do not realize the importance and necessity of computer education.
Future Policies : Computer science together with information technology is the only way out for most of ills of society. Rather computer become base for study, understanding and evaluation of all other sciences. All the officials, teachers, students and their parents have called for immediate introduction of computer education in all the school in Andhra Pradesh.
We therefore make the following recommendations:
I. A functional Computer Education curriculum be drafted and prescribed in all school with effect from the academic year 2010- 2011.
II. All schools are provided with computers along with necessary laboratory facilities.
III. Required number of trained teachers should be appointed immediately.
We are unanimous in our opinion that these recommendations provide a sound basis for introducing Computer Education in all the schools in the state of Andhra Pradesh with effect from 2010-2011.
Topic: Which is more beneficial to the society: electronic or print media?
Examiner: Ladies and gentlemen! Please settle down and be relaxed to take part in a group discussion. The topic is: “Which is more beneficial to the society: electronic or print media?” You are at liberty to speak in favor of either of them. Now we recede to the back ground to evaluate your performance. Please start the discussion.
Speaker 5: Well friends! I would like to initiate the discussion be expressing my view in favor of electronic media. T.V and internethave brought about revolutionary changes in the world. News travels through electronic media so fast transmitted thus giving easy fast access to the viewers.
Speaker 2: I fully agree with speaker 5 .A TV has specific channels on science, geography and education, which are knowledge based. Besides, there are plenty of channels on entertainment which function round the clock. A person at any time can turn to TV and enjoy any programme of his choice.
Speaker 3: Sorry to interrupt you madam. There are two sides of coin. The electronic media had certain ill effects, which harm children and even adults. Children are so glued to TV that they forget about their studies. One Day international matches broadcast for seven or eight hours a day have negative effects on all. Besides students, even employees apply for leave and enjoy the matches. Teenagers and elders surf internet against their health. The print media has no such negative effects. There was a talk that electronic media may put newspaper out of business but this has not happened. The print media is getting more popular over the masses.
Speaker 1: I am afraid I can’t agree with the previous lady speaker. If popularity alone is considered electronic media has a definite edge over the print media. These days, every house has a TV; some of the theaters are being closed because people are no longer attracted to it. They would like to watch a movie at home with their family when they are free. Besides, the electronic media is known for the quickest transmission of news and information. The news becomes stale by the time it appears on the papers, as people have already come to know of it from TV.
Speaker 4: Speaker 1 may be right as far as the quick transmission of news is concerned but people these days would like the know the details of certain happenings and for that it is the newspaper that is useful. In newspapers we find not only news but views also. The print media is known for its authentic news and constructive criticism of the activity of government. It reports and comments in greater depth without fear than what the electronic media does. The channels on TV are few but newspapers, journals and magazines are innumerable and they reflect the opinion of the people. The government can find out from the print media how the public reacts to their policies. You can have TV and internet at office and at home but cant carry them to bathroom! The print media on the other hand is handy and you can take it anywhere you like.
Speaker 2: Our friend has spoken about the merits of print media. But all these merits can be associated with even the electronic media. No doubt, we have critical comments on the policies of the government on the print media. But in TV, we have open discussion on them in a live coverage where representatives from different political parties sit together and discuss before a moderator, which is more effective and exciting than a verbal description of the views
Speaker 3: All these are nothing when compared to obscene dances and jokes presented visually on TV and internet which are more likely to lead younger generation astray.
Speaker 1: The electronic and print media have their own good and bad effects. But, why should we have negative approach? Let us choose what is good for us and avoid the rest. The electronic media is certainly and effectively more beneficial to society for job search. Young people depend more on internet facilities. Students and researchers sit before an internet for hours, collecting information. Business community looks for market on TV. The press media has become rather outdated.
Speaker 3: Sorry to object to this statement. Newspapers are read even in remote villages. For the cultural and moral development of society, an honest mass media is essential and for that we can’t think of other than print media.
Examiner: It is time for us to end. I feel that opinions are sharply divided on this issue. It is difficult for us to reach a consensus. I thank you all for your participation in the discussion.